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my first serious religious experience in a new church;

time:2023-12-03 02:25:22 source:Track and trace network author:knowledge read:450次

Hydrophobia.--The bite of an enraged animal is always of great danger to man, and death has followed a wound inflicted by domestic animals or even fowls; a human bite has also caused a fatal issue. Rabies is frequently observed in herbivorous animals, such as the ox, cow, or sheep, but is most commonly found in the carnivore, such as the dog, wolf, fox, jackal, hyena, and cat and other members of the feline tribe. Fox reports several cases of death from symptoms resembling those of hydrophobia in persons who were bitten by skunks. Swine, birds, and even domestic poultry have caused hydrophobia by their bites. Le Cat speaks of the bite of an enraged duck causing death, and Thiermeyer mentions death shortly following the bite of a goose, as well as death in three days from a chicken-bite. Camerarius describes a case of epilepsy which he attributed to a horse-bite. Among the older writers speaking of death following the bite of an enraged man, are van Meek'ren, Wolff, Zacutus Lusitanus, and Glandorp. The Ephemerides contains an account of hydrophobia caused by a human bite. Jones reports a case of syphilitic inoculation from a human bite on the hand.

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Hydrophobia may not necessarily be from a bite; a previously-existing wound may be inoculated by the saliva alone, conveyed by licking. Pliny, and some subsequent writers, attributed rabies to a worm under the animal's tongue which they called "lytta." There is said to be a superstition in India that, shortly after being bitten by a mad dog, the victim conceives pups in his belly; at about three months these move rapidly up and down the patient's intestines, and being mad like their progenitor, they bite and bark incessantly, until they finally kill the unfortunate victim. The natives of Nepaul firmly believe this theory. All sorts of curious remedies have been suggested for the cure of hydrophobia. Crabs-claws, Spanish fly, and dragon roots, given three mornings before the new or full moon, was suggested as a specific by Sir Robert Gordon. Theodore De Vaux remarks that the person bitten should immediately pluck the feathers from the breech of an old cock and apply them bare to the bites. If the dog was mad the cock was supposed to swell and die. If the dog was not mad the cock would not swell; in either case the person so treated was immune. Mad-stones, as well as snake-stones, are believed in by some persons at the present day. According to Curran, at one time in Ireland the fear of hydrophobia was so great that any person supposed to be suffering from it could be legally smothered.

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According to French statistics, hydrophobia is an extremely fatal disease, although the proportion of people bitten and escaping without infection is overwhelmingly greater than those who acquire the disease. The mortality of genuine hydrophobia is from 30 to 80 per cent, influenced by efficient and early cauterization and scientific treatment. There is little doubt that many of the cases reported as hydrophobia are merely examples of general systemic infection from a local focus of sepsis, made possible by some primitive and uncleanly treatment of the original wound. There is much superstition relative to hydrophobia; the majority of wounds seen are filled with the hair of the dog, soot, ham-fat, and also with particles of decayed food and saliva from the mouth of some person who has practiced sucking the wound.

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Ordinarily, the period of incubation of hydrophobia in man is before the end of the second month, although rarely cases are seen as many as six months from the reception of the bite. The first symptoms of the disease are melancholia, insomnia, loss of appetite, and occasionally shooting pains, radiating from the wound. There may be severe pain at the back of the head and in the neck. Difficulty in swallowing soon becomes a marked symptom. The speech assumes a sobbing tone, and occasionally the expression of the face is wild and haggard. As regards the crucial diagnostic test of a glass of water, the following account of a patient's attempt to drink is given by Curtis and quoted by Warren: "A glass of water was offered the patient, which he refused to take, saying that he could not stand so much as that, but would take it from a teaspoon. On taking the water from the spoon he evinced some discomfort and agitation, but continued to raise the spoon. As it came within a foot of his lips, he gagged and began to gasp violently, his features worked, and his head shook. He finally almost tossed the water into his mouth, losing the greater part of it, and staggered about the room gasping and groaning. At this moment the respirations seemed wholly costal, and were performed with great effort, the elbows being jerked upward with every inspiration. The paroxysm lasted about half a minute. The act of swallowing did not appear to cause distress, for he could go through the motions of deglutition without any trouble. The approach of liquid toward the mouth would, however, cause distress." It is to be remarked that the spasm affects the mechanism of the respiratory apparatus, the muscles of mastication and deglutition being only secondarily contracted.

Pasteur discovered that the virulence of the virus of rabies could be attenuated in passing it through different species of animals, and also that inoculation of this attenuated virus had a decided prophylactic effect on the disease; hence, by cutting the spinal cord of inoculated animals into fragments a few centimeters long, and drying them, an emulsion could be made containing the virus. The patients are first inoculated with a cord fourteen days old, and the inoculation is repeated for nine days, each time with a cord one day fresher. The intensive method consists in omitting the weakest cords and giving the inoculations at shorter intervals. As a curious coincidence, Pliny and Pasteur, the ancient and modern, both discuss the particular virulence of saliva during fasting.

There is much discussion over the extent of injury a shark-bite can produce. In fact some persons deny the reliability of any of the so-called cases of shark-bites. Ensor reports an interesting case occurring at Port Elizabeth, South Africa. While bathing, an expert swimmer felt a sharp pain in the thigh, and before he could cry out, felt a horrid crunch and was dragged below the surface of the water. He struggled for a minute, was twisted about, shaken, and then set free, and by a supreme effort, reached the landing stairs of the jetty, where, to his surprise, he found that a monstrous shark had bitten his leg off. The leg had been seized obliquely, and the teeth had gone across the joints, wounding the condyles of the femur. There were three marks on the left side showing where the fish had first caught him. The amputation was completed at once, and the man recovered. Macgrigor reports the case of a man at a fishery, near Manaar, who was bitten by a shark. The upper jaw of the animal was fixed in the left side of the belly, forming a semicircular wound of which a point one inch to the left of the umbilicus was the upper boundary, and the lower part of the upper third of the thigh, the lower boundary. The abdominal and lumbar muscles were divided and turned up, exposing the colon in its passage across the belly. Several convolutions of the small intestines were also laid bare, as were also the three lowest ribs. The gluteal muscles were lacerated and torn, the tendons about the trochanter divided, laying the bone bare, and the vastus externus and part of the rectus of the thigh were cut across. The wound was 19 inches in length and four or five inches in breadth. When Dr. Kennedy first saw the patient he had been carried in a boat and then in a palanquin for over five miles, and at this time, three hours after the reception of the wound, Kennedy freed the abdominal cavity of salt water and blood, thoroughly cleansed the wound of the hair and the clots, and closed it with adhesive strips. By the sixteenth day the abdominal wound had perfectly closed, the lacerations granulated healthily, and the man did well. Boyle reports recovery from extensive lacerated wounds from the bite of a shark. Both arms were amputated as a consequence of the injuries. Fayrer mentions shark-bites in the Hooghley.

Leprosy from a Fish-bite.--Ashmead records the curious case of a man that had lived many years in a leprous country, and while dressing a fish had received a wound of the thumb from the fin of the fish. Swelling of the arm followed, and soon after bullae upon the chest, head, and face. In a few months the blotches left from this eruption became leprous tubercles, and other well-marked signs of the malady followed. The author asked if in this case we have to do with a latent leprosy which was evoked by the wound, or if it were a case of inoculation from the fish?

Cutliffe records recovery after amputation at the elbow-joint, as a consequence of an alligator-bite nine days before admission to the hospital. The patient exhibited a compound comminuted fracture of the right radius and ulna in their lower thirds, compound comminuted fractures of the bones of the carpus and metacarpus, with great laceration of the soft parts, laying bare the wrist-joint, besides several penetrating wounds of the arm and fore-arm. Mourray gives some notes on a case of crocodile-bite with removal of a large portion of omentum. Sircar speaks of recovery from a crocodile-bite. Dudgeon reports two cases of animal-bites, both fatal, one by a bear, and the other by a camel. There is mention of a compound dislocation of the wrist-joint from a horse-bite. Fayrer speaks of a wolf-bite of the forearm, followed by necrosis and hemorrhage, necessitating ligature of the brachial artery and subsequent excision of the elbow-joint.


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