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Avenue all night, adding to his pocketbook and his famous

time:2023-12-03 01:37:45 source:Track and trace network author:health read:900次

In an excellent article on the evolution of ceremonial institutions Herbert Spencer mentions the Fuegians, Veddahs, Andamanese, Dyaks, Todas, Gonds, Santals, Bodos, and Dhimals, Mishmis, Kamchadales, and Snake Indians, as among people who form societies to practice simple mutilations in slight forms. Mutilations in somewhat graver forms, but still in moderation, are practiced by the Tasmanians, Tamaese, the people of New Guinea, Karens, Nagas, Ostiaks, Eskimos, Chinooks, Comanches, and Chippewas. What might be called mixed or compound mutilations are practiced by the New Zealanders, East Africans, Kondes, Kukas, and Calmucks. Among those practising simple but severe mutilations are the New Caledonians, the Bushmen, and some indigenous Australians. Those tribes having for their customs the practice of compound major mutilations are the Fiji Islanders, Sandwich Islanders, Tahitians, Tongans, Samoans, Javanese, Sumatrans, natives of Malagasy, Hottentots, Damaras, Bechuanas, Kaffirs, the Congo people, the Coast Negroes, Inland Negroes, Dahomeans, Ashantees, Fulahs, Abyssinians, Arabs, and Dakotas. Spencer has evidently made a most extensive and comprehensive study of this subject, and his paper is a most valuable contribution to the subject. In the preparation of this section we have frequently quoted from it.

Avenue all night, adding to his pocketbook and his famous

The practice of self-bleeding has its origin in other mutilations, although the Aztecs shed human blood in the worship of the sun. The Samoiedes have a custom of drinking the blood of warm animals. Those of the Fijians who were cannibals drank the warm blood of their victims. Among the Amaponda Kaffirs there are horrible accounts of kindred savage customs. Spencer quotes:--"It is usual for the ruling chief on his accession to be washed in the blood of a near relative, generally a brother, who is put to death for the occasion." During a Samoan marriage-ceremony the friends of the bride "took up stones and beat themselves until their heads were bruised and bleeding." In Australia a novitiate at the ceremony of manhood drank a mouthful of blood from the veins of the warrior who was to be his sponsor.

Avenue all night, adding to his pocketbook and his famous

At the death of their kings the Lacedemonians met in large numbers and tore the flesh from their foreheads with pins and needles. It is said that when Odin was near his death he ordered himself to be marked with a spear; and Niort, one of his successors, followed the example of his predecessor. Shakespeare speaks of "such as boast and show their scars." In the olden times it was not uncommon for a noble soldier to make public exhibition of his scars with the greatest pride; in fact, on the battlefield they invited the reception of superficial disfiguring injuries, and to-day some students of the learned universities of Germany seem prouder of the possession of scars received in a duel of honor than in awards for scholastic attainments.

Avenue all night, adding to his pocketbook and his famous

Lichtenstein tells of priests among the Bechuanas who made long cuts from the thigh to the knee of each warrior who slew an enemy in battle. Among some tribes of the Kaffirs a kindred custom was practiced; and among the Damaras, for every wild animal a young man destroyed his father made four incisions on the front of his son's body. Speaking of certain Congo people, Tuckey says that they scar themselves principally with the idea of rendering themselves agreeable to the women of their tribe. Among the Itzaex Indians of Yucatan, a race with particularly handsome features, some are marked with scarred lines, inflicted as signs of courage.

Cosmetic Mutilations.--In modern times there have been individuals expert in removing facial deformities, and by operations of various kinds producing pleasing dimples or other artificial signs of beauty. We have seen an apparatus advertised to be worn on the nose during the night for the purpose of correcting a disagreeable contour of this organ. A medical description of the artificial manufacture of dimples is as follows:--"The modus operandi was to make a puncture in the skin where the dimple was required, which would not be noticed when healed, and, with a very delicate instrument, remove a portion of the muscle. Inflammation was then excited in the skin over the subcutaneous pit, and in a few days the wound, if such it may be called, was healed, and a charming dimple was the result." It is quite possible that some of our modern operators have overstepped the bounds of necessity, and performed unjustifiable plastic operations to satisfy the vanity of their patients.

Dobrizhoffer says of the Abipones that boys of seven pierce their little arms in imitation of their parents. Among some of the indigenous Australians it is quite customary for ridged and linear scars to be self-inflicted. In Tanna the people produce elevated scars on the arms and chests. Bancroft recites that family-marks of this nature existed among the Cuebas of Central America, refusal being tantamount to rebellion. Schomburgk tells that among the Arawaks, after a Mariquawi dance, so great is their zeal for honorable scars, the blood will run down their swollen calves, and strips of skin and muscle hang from the mangled limbs. Similar practices rendered it necessary for the United States Government to stop some of the ceremonial dances of the Indians under their surveillance.

A peculiar custom among savages is the amputation of a finger as a sacrifice to a deity. In the tribe of the Dakotas the relatives of a dead chief pacified his spirit by amputating a finger. In a similar way, during his initiation, the young Mandan warrior, "holding up the little finger of his left hand to the Great Spirit," . . "expresses his willingness to give it as a sacrifice, and he lays it on the dried buffalo skull, when another chops it off near the hand with a blow of the hatchet." According to Mariner the natives of Tonga cut off a portion of the little finger as a sacrifice to the gods for the recovery of a superior sick relative. The Australians have a custom of cutting off the last joint of the little finger of females as a token of submission to powerful beings alive and dead. A Hottentot widow who marries a second time must have the distal joint of her little finger cut off; another joint is removed each time she remarries.

Among the mutilations submitted to on the death of a king or chief in the Sandwich Islands, Cook mentions in his "Voyages" the custom of knocking out from one to four front teeth.


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