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of Little Rock. The first European to see them was Hernando

time:2023-12-03 01:50:53 source:Track and trace network author:health read:825次

There is much discussion over the extent of injury a shark-bite can produce. In fact some persons deny the reliability of any of the so-called cases of shark-bites. Ensor reports an interesting case occurring at Port Elizabeth, South Africa. While bathing, an expert swimmer felt a sharp pain in the thigh, and before he could cry out, felt a horrid crunch and was dragged below the surface of the water. He struggled for a minute, was twisted about, shaken, and then set free, and by a supreme effort, reached the landing stairs of the jetty, where, to his surprise, he found that a monstrous shark had bitten his leg off. The leg had been seized obliquely, and the teeth had gone across the joints, wounding the condyles of the femur. There were three marks on the left side showing where the fish had first caught him. The amputation was completed at once, and the man recovered. Macgrigor reports the case of a man at a fishery, near Manaar, who was bitten by a shark. The upper jaw of the animal was fixed in the left side of the belly, forming a semicircular wound of which a point one inch to the left of the umbilicus was the upper boundary, and the lower part of the upper third of the thigh, the lower boundary. The abdominal and lumbar muscles were divided and turned up, exposing the colon in its passage across the belly. Several convolutions of the small intestines were also laid bare, as were also the three lowest ribs. The gluteal muscles were lacerated and torn, the tendons about the trochanter divided, laying the bone bare, and the vastus externus and part of the rectus of the thigh were cut across. The wound was 19 inches in length and four or five inches in breadth. When Dr. Kennedy first saw the patient he had been carried in a boat and then in a palanquin for over five miles, and at this time, three hours after the reception of the wound, Kennedy freed the abdominal cavity of salt water and blood, thoroughly cleansed the wound of the hair and the clots, and closed it with adhesive strips. By the sixteenth day the abdominal wound had perfectly closed, the lacerations granulated healthily, and the man did well. Boyle reports recovery from extensive lacerated wounds from the bite of a shark. Both arms were amputated as a consequence of the injuries. Fayrer mentions shark-bites in the Hooghley.

of Little Rock. The first European to see them was Hernando

Leprosy from a Fish-bite.--Ashmead records the curious case of a man that had lived many years in a leprous country, and while dressing a fish had received a wound of the thumb from the fin of the fish. Swelling of the arm followed, and soon after bullae upon the chest, head, and face. In a few months the blotches left from this eruption became leprous tubercles, and other well-marked signs of the malady followed. The author asked if in this case we have to do with a latent leprosy which was evoked by the wound, or if it were a case of inoculation from the fish?

of Little Rock. The first European to see them was Hernando

Cutliffe records recovery after amputation at the elbow-joint, as a consequence of an alligator-bite nine days before admission to the hospital. The patient exhibited a compound comminuted fracture of the right radius and ulna in their lower thirds, compound comminuted fractures of the bones of the carpus and metacarpus, with great laceration of the soft parts, laying bare the wrist-joint, besides several penetrating wounds of the arm and fore-arm. Mourray gives some notes on a case of crocodile-bite with removal of a large portion of omentum. Sircar speaks of recovery from a crocodile-bite. Dudgeon reports two cases of animal-bites, both fatal, one by a bear, and the other by a camel. There is mention of a compound dislocation of the wrist-joint from a horse-bite. Fayrer speaks of a wolf-bite of the forearm, followed by necrosis and hemorrhage, necessitating ligature of the brachial artery and subsequent excision of the elbow-joint.

of Little Rock. The first European to see them was Hernando

Injuries from Lightning.--The subject of lightning-stroke, with its diverse range of injuries, is of considerable interest, and, though not uncommon, the matter is surrounded by a veil of superstition and mystery. It is well known that instantaneous or temporary unconsciousness may result from lightning-stroke. Sometimes superficial or deep burns may be the sole result, and again paralysis of the general nerves, such as those of sensation and motion, may be occasioned. For many years the therapeutic effect of a lightning-stroke has been believed to be a possibility, and numerous instances are on record. The object of this article will be to record a sufficient number of cases of lightning-stroke to enable the reader to judge of its various effects, and form his own opinion of the good or evil of the injury. It must be mentioned here that half a century ago Le Conte wrote a most extensive article on this subject, which, to the present time, has hardly been improved upon.

The first cases to be recorded are those in which there has been complete and rapid recovery from lightning-stroke. Crawford mentions a woman who, while sitting in front of her fireplace on the first floor of a two-story frame building, heard a crash about her, and realized that the house had been struck by lightning. The lightning had torn all the weather-boarding off the house, and had also followed a spouting which terminated in a wooden trough in a pig-sty, ten feet back of the house, and killed a pig. Another branch of the fluid passed through the inside of the building and, running along the upper floor to directly over where Mrs. F. was sitting, passed through the floor and descended upon the top of her left shoulder. Her left arm was lying across her abdomen at the time, the points of the fingers resting on the crests of the ilium. There was a rent in the dress at the top of the shoulder, and a red line half an inch wide running from thence along the inside of the arm and fore-arm. In some places there was complete vesication, and on its palmer surface the hand lying on the abdomen was completely denuded. The abdomen, for a space of four inches in length and eight inches in breadth, was also blistered. The fluid then passed from the fingers to the crest of the ilium, and down the outside of the leg, bursting open the shoes, and passing then through the floor. Again a red line half an inch wide could be traced from the ilium to the toes. The clothing was not scorched, but only slightly rent at the point of the shoulder and where the fingers rested. This woman was neither knocked off her chair nor stunned, and she felt no shock at the time. After ordinary treatment for her burns she made rapid and complete recovery.

Halton reports the history of a case of a woman of sixty-five who, about thirty-five minutes before he saw her, had been struck by lightning. While she was sitting in an outbuilding a stroke of lightning struck and shattered a tree about a foot distant. Then, leaving the tree about seven feet from the ground, it penetrated the wall of the building, which was of unplastered frame, and struck Mrs. P. on the back of the head, at a point where her hair was done up in a knot and fastened by two ordinary hair-pins. The hair was much scorched, and under the knot the skin of the scalp was severely burned. The fluid crossed, burning her right ear, in which was a gold ear-ring, and then passed over her throat and down the left sternum, leaving a burn three inches wide, covered by a blister. There was another burn, 12 inches long and three inches wide, passing from just above the crest of the ilium forward and downward to the symphysis pubis. The next burn began at the patella of the right knee, extending to the bottom of the heel, upon reaching which it wound around the inner side of the leg. About four inches below the knee a sound strip of cuticle, about 1 1/2 inches, was left intact. The lightning passed off the heel of the foot, bursting open the heel of a strongly sewed gaiter-boot. The woman was rendered unconscious but subsequently recovered.

A remarkable feature of a lightning-stroke is the fact that it very often strips the affected part of its raiment, as in the previous case in which the shoe was burst open. In a discussion before the Clinical Society of London, October 24 1879, there were several instances mentioned in which clothes had been stripped off by lightning. In one case mentioned by Sir James Paget, the clothes were wet and the man's skin was reeking with perspiration. In its course the lightning traveled down the clothes, tearing them posteriorly, and completely stripping the patient. The boots were split up behind and the laces torn out. This patient, however, made a good recovery. Beatson mentions an instance in which an explosion of a shell completely tore off the left leg of a sergeant instructor, midway between the knee and ankle. It was found that the foot and lower third of the leg had been completely denuded of a boot and woolen stocking, without any apparent abrasion or injury to the skin. The stocking was found in the battery and the boot struck a person some distance off. The stocking was much torn, and the boot had the heel missing, and in one part the sole was separated from the upper. The laces in the upper holes were broken but were still present in the lower holes. The explanation offered in this case is similar to that in analogous cases of lightning-stroke, that is, that the gas generated by the explosion found its way between the limb and the stocking and boot and stripped them off.

There is a curious collection of relics, consisting of the clothes of a man struck by lightning, artistically hung in a glass case in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and the history of the injury, of which these remnants are the result, is given by Professor Stewart, the curator, as follows: At half past four on June 8, 1878, James Orman and others were at work near Snave, in Romney Marsh, about eight miles from Ashford. The men were engaged in lopping willows, when the violence of the rain compelled them to take refuge under a hedge. Three of the men entered a shed near by, but Orman remained by the willow, close to the window of the shed. Scarcely were the three inside when a lightning-stroke entered the door, crossed the shed, and passed out the window, which it blew before it into the field. The men noticed that the tree under which Orman stood was stripped of its bark. Their companion's boots stood close to the foot of the tree, while the man himself lay almost perfectly naked a few yards further on, calling for help. When they left him a few moments previously, he was completely clad in a cotton shirt, cotton jacket, flannel vest, and cotton trousers, secured at the waist with leather straps and buckles. Orman also wore a pair of stout hobnail boots, and had a watch and chain. After the lightning-stroke, however, all he had on him was the left arm of his flannel vest. The field was strewn for some distance with fragments of the unfortunate man's clothing. Orman was thrown down, his eyebrows burned off, and his whiskers and beard much scorched. His chest was covered with superficial burns, and he had sustained a fracture of the leg. His strong boots were torn from his feet, and his watch had a hole burned right through it, as if a soldering iron had been used. The watch-chain was almost completely destroyed, only a few links remaining. Together with some fused coins, these were found close by, and are deposited in a closed box in the Museum. According to Orman's account of the affair, he first felt a violent blow on the chest and shoulders, and then he was involved in a blinding light and hurled into the air. He said he never lost consciousness; but when at the hospital he seemed very deaf and stupid. He was discharged perfectly cured twenty weeks after the occurrence. The scientific explanation of this amazing escape from this most eccentric vagary of the electric fluid is given,--the fact that the wet condition of the man's clothing increased its power of conduction, and in this way saved his life. It is said that the electric current passed down the side of Orman's body, causing everywhere a sudden production of steam, which by its expansion tore the clothing off and hurled it away. It is a curious fact that where the flannel covered the man's skin the burns were merely superficial, whereas in those parts touched by the cotton trousers they were very much deeper. This case is also quoted and described by Dr. Wilks.


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