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farm, whose residents sometimes paraded down Central Avenue;

time:2023-12-03 01:56:07 source:Track and trace network author:software read:345次

Rhodius mentions the usage of infibulation in antiquity, and Fabricius d'Aquapendente remarks that infibulation was usually practiced in females for the preservation of chastity. No Roman maiden was able to preserve her virginity during participation in the celebrations in the Temples of Venus, the debauches of Venus and Mars, etc., wherein vice was authorized by divine injunction; for this reason the lips of the vagina were closed by rings of iron, copper, or silver, so joined as to hinder coitus, but not prevent evacuation. Different sized rings were used for those of different ages. Although this device provided against the coitus, the maiden was not free from the assaults of the Lesbians. During the Middle Ages, in place of infibulation, chastity-girdles were used, and in the Italian girdles, such as the one exhibited in the Musee Cluny in Paris, both the anus and vulva were protected by a steel covering perforated for the evacuations. In the Orient, particularly in India and Persia, according to old travelers, the labia were sewed together, allowing but a small opening for excretions. Buffon and Brown mention infibulation in Abyssinia, the parts being separated by a bistoury at the time of marriage. In Circassia the women were protected by a copper girdle or a corset of hide and skin which, according to custom, only the husband could undo. Peney speaks of infibulation for the preservation of chastity, as observed by him in the Soudan. Among the Nubians this operation was performed at about the age of eight with great ceremony, and when the time for marriage approached the vulva had to be opened by incision. Sir Richard Buxton, a distinguished traveler, also speaks of infibulation, and, according to him, at the time of the marriage ceremony the male tries to prove his manhood by using only Nature's method and weapon to consummate the marriage, but if he failed he was allowed artificial aid to effect entrance. Sir Samuel Baker is accredited in The Lancet with giving an account in Latin text of the modus operandi of a practice among the Nubian women of removing the clitoris and nymphae in the young girl, and abrading the adjacent walls of the external labia so that they would adhere and leave only a urethral aperture.

farm, whose residents sometimes paraded down Central Avenue;

This ancient custom of infibulation is occasionally seen at the present day in civilized countries, and some cases of infibulation from jealousy are on record. There is mentioned, as from the Leicester Assizes, the trial of George Baggerly for execution of a villainous design on his wife. In jealousy he "had sewed up her private parts." Recently, before the New York Academy of Medicine, Collier reported a case of pregnancy in a woman presenting nympha-infibulation. The patient sought the physician's advice in the summer of 1894, while suffering from uterine disease, and being five weeks pregnant. She was a German woman of twenty-eight, had been married several years, and was the mother of several children. Collier examined her and observed two holes in the nymphae. When he asked her concerning these, she reluctantly told him that she had been compelled by her husband to wear a lock in this region. Her mother, prior to their marriage, sent her over to the care of her future husband (he having left Germany some months before). On her arrival he perforated the labia minora, causing her to be ill several weeks; after she had sufficiently recovered he put on a padlock, and for many years he had practiced the habit of locking her up after each intercourse. Strange to relate, no physician, except Collier, had ever inquired about the openings. In this connection the celebrated Harvey mentions a mare with infibulated genitals, but these did not prevent successful labor.

farm, whose residents sometimes paraded down Central Avenue;

Occasionally infibulation has been used as a means of preventing masturbation. De la Fontaine has mentioned this fact, and there is a case in this country in which acute dementia from masturbation was cured by infibulation. In this instance the prepuce was perforated in two opposite places by a trocar, and two pewter sounds (No. 2) were introduced into the wounds and twisted like rings. On the eleventh day one of the rings was removed, and a fresh one introduced in a new place. A cure was effected in eight weeks. There is recent mention made of a method of preventing masturbation by a cage fastened over the genitals by straps and locks. In cases of children the key was to be kept by the parents, but in adults to be put in some part of the house remote from the sleeping apartment, the theory being that the desire would leave before the key could be obtained.

farm, whose residents sometimes paraded down Central Avenue;

Among some peoples the urethra was slit up as a means of preventing conception, making a meatus near the base of the penis. Herodotus remarks that the women of a certain portion of Egypt stood up while they urinated, while the men squatted. Investigation has shown that the women were obliged to stand up on account of elongated nymphae and labia, while the men sought a sitting posture on account of the termination of the urethra being on the inferior side of the base of the penis, artificially formed there in order to prevent conception. In the Australian Medical Gazette, May, 1883, there is an account of some of the methods of the Central Australians of preventing conception. One was to make an opening into the male urethra just anterior to the scrotum, and another was to slit up the entire urethra so far as to make but a single canal from the scrotum to the glans penis. Bourke quotes Palmer in mentioning that it is a custom to split the urethra of the male of the Kalkadoon tribe, near Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia Mayer of Vienna describes an operation of perforation of the penis among the Malays; and Jagor and Micklucho-Maclay report similar customs among the Dyaks and other natives of Borneo, Java, and Phillipine Islands.

Circumcision is a rite of great antiquity. The Bible furnishes frequent records of this subject, and the bas-reliefs on some of the old Egyptian ruins represent circumcised children. Labat has found traces of circumcision and excision of nymphae in mummies. Herodotus remarks that the Egyptians practiced circumcision rather as a sanitary measure than as a rite. Voltaire stated that the Hebrews borrowed circumcision from the Egyptians; but the Jews claimed that the Phoenicians borrowed this rite from the Israelites.

Spencer and others say that in the early history of the Christian religion, St. Paul and his Disciples did not believe in circumcision, while St. Peter and his followers practiced it. Spencer mentions that the Abyssinians take a phallic trophy by circumcision from the enemy's dead body. In his "History of Circumcision," Remondino says that among the modern Berbers it is not unusual for a warrior to exhibit virile members of persons he has slain; he also says that, according to Bergman, the Israelites practiced preputial mutilations; David brought 200 prepuces of the Philistines to Saul. Circumcision is practiced in nearly every portion of the world, and by various races, sometimes being a civil as well as a religious custom. Its use in surgery is too well known to be discussed here. It might be mentioned, however, that Rake of Trinidad, has performed circumcision 16 times, usually for phimosis due to leprous tuberculation of the prepuce. Circumcision, as practiced on the clitoris in the female, is mentioned on page 308.

Ceremonial Ovariotomy.--In the writings of Strabonius and Alexander ab Alexandro, allusion is made to the liberties taken with the bodies of females by the ancient Egyptians and Lydians. Knott says that ablation of the ovaries is a time-honored custom in India, and that he had the opportunity of physically examining some of the women who had been operated on in early life. At twenty-five he found them strong and muscular, their mammary glands wholly undeveloped, and the normal growth of pubic hairs absent. The pubic arch was narrow, and the vaginal orifice practically obliterated. The menses had never appeared, and there seemed to be no sexual desire. Micklucho-Maclay found that one of the most primitive of all existing races--the New Hollanders--practiced ovariotomy for the utilitarian purpose of creating a supply of prostitutes, without the danger of burdening the population by unnecessary increase. MacGillibray found a native ovariotomized female at Cape York who had been subjected to the operation because, having been born dumb, she would be prevented from bearing dumb children,--a wise, though primitive, method of preventing social dependents.

Castration has long been practiced, either for the production of eunuchs, or castrata, through vengeance or jealousy, for excessive cupidity, as a punishment for crime, in fanaticism, in ignorance, and as a surgical therapeutic measure (recently, for the relief of hypertrophied prostate). The custom is essentially Oriental in origin, and was particularly used in polygamous countries, where the mission of eunuchs was to guard the females of the harem. They were generally large, stout men, and were noted for their vigorous health. The history of eunuchism is lost in antiquity. The ancient Book of Job speaks of eunuchs, and they were in vogue before the time of Semiramis; the King of Lydia, Andramytis, is said to have sanctioned castration of both male and female for social reasons. Negro eunuchs were common among the Romans. All the great emperors and conquerors had their eunuchs. Alexander the Great had his celebrated eunuch, Bagoas, and Nero, his Sporus, etc. Chevers says that the manufacture of eunuchs still takes place in the cities of Delhi, Lucknow, and Rajpootana. So skilful are the traveling eunuch-makers that their mortality is a small fraction of one per cent. Their method of operation is to encircle the external genital organs with a tight ligature, and then sweep them off at one stroke. He also remarks that those who retain their penises are of but little value or trusted. He divided the Indian eunuchs into three classes: those born so, those with a penis but no testicles, and those minus both testicles and penis. Curran describes the traveling eunuch-makers in Central India, and remarks upon the absence of death after the operation, and invites the attention of gynecologists and operators to the successful, though crude, methods used. Curran says that, except those who are degraded by practices of sexual perversions, these individuals are vigorous bodily, shrewd, and sagacious, thus proving the ancient descriptions of them.


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